OK: Found an XML parser.
OK: Support for GZIP encoding.
OK: Support for character munging.
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      ["title"]=>
      string(84) "Unorthodox ‘train in a capsule’ could offer simple solution for at-risk patients"
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Journal Reference:

  1. Joshua A. Chu‐Tan, Max Kirkby, Riccardo Natoli. Running to save sight: The effects of exercise on retinal health and function. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 2021; DOI: 10.1111/ceo.14023

The molecular messages are sent to our brain and potentially our eyes immediately after we exercise.

The ANU team is conducting research to better understand what impact these molecular messages have on retinal health, but also the central nervous system and eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Associate Professor Riccardo Natoli, Head of Clear Vision Research at ANU, says the molecules could potentially be hijacked, recoded and “bottled up” in a pill and taken like a vitamin.

“The beneficial messages being sent to the central nervous system during exercise are packaged up in what are known as lipid particles. We are essentially prescribing the molecular message of exercise to those who physically aren’t able to,” he said.

“We think that as you age, the ability to communicate between the muscles and the retina starts to be lost. Similar to taking supplements, maybe we can provide genetic or molecular supplementation that enables that natural biological process to continue as we age.

“Our goal is to figure out what these molecules are communicating to the body and how they’re communicating.”

New ANU research has examined existing literature into the effects of exercise on the central nervous system and eyes. Specifically, the researchers set out to discover what impact exercise has on the retina — the light-sensing part of the eye — and whether exercise can help maintain good eyesight as we age.

Dr Joshua Chu-Tan, also from the ANU Clear Vision Research Lab, says further research is needed to understand how these molecular signals, which are sent from the rest of the body when we exercise, actually reach our brain and eyes.

He says the team’s preliminary research into the benefits of exercise on the retina has unearthed some “promising” results.

“We know exercise is good for our eyesight, but to what extent is still unknown. Our aim is to understand the benefits of exercise at the molecular level and how it is beneficial for the central nervous system and the retina,” Dr Chu-Tan said.

“We found the benefits of exercise extend far beyond what has traditionally been known, however this has been largely understudied in the retina, despite the retina being an extension of the brain.

“One of the main goals of doing this review was to determine what’s going on inside the body after we exercise that gives us the benefits of exercise, and why physical activity is so good for our brain and eyes.”

The futuristic therapy could one day help patients suffering from neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

“It’s been suggested that prescribing exercise to patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s can help improve and slow down the disease progression,” Dr Chu-Tan said.

“We know that from looking at diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s if you exercise in a particular fashion you can potentially stimulate neuronal activity.

“That hasn’t really been looked at in the retina at the level we’re thinking of. We want to understand the molecular messages that underpin the benefits of exercise.”

The researchers say the supplement would be intended only for patients who have restricted movement that renders them unable to exercise at an intensity needed to reap the rewards. It is not intended for the general public.

“We can’t possibly package all the effects of exercise into a single pill, there are too many benefits that stretch throughout the entire body beyond what we could ‘prescribe’ and that’s not the goal,” Dr Chu-Tan said.

Dr Chu-Tan, Tuckwell Scholar Max Kirkby and Associate Professor Natoli’s systematic review of existing literature into the benefits of exercise on the central nervous system and eyes, including the retina, is published in Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.

We want to give thanks to the writer of this write-up for this amazing content

Unorthodox ‘train in a capsule’ could offer simple solution for at-risk patients

" } ["summary"]=> string(740) "Journal Reference: Joshua A. Chu‐Tan, Max Kirkby, Riccardo Natoli. Running to save sight: The effects of exercise on retinal health and function. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 2021; DOI: 10.1111/ceo.14023 The molecular messages are sent to our brain and potentially our eyes immediately after we exercise. The ANU team is conducting research to better understand what ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(5021) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Joshua A. Chu‐Tan, Max Kirkby, Riccardo Natoli. Running to save sight: The effects of exercise on retinal health and function. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 2021; DOI: 10.1111/ceo.14023

The molecular messages are sent to our brain and potentially our eyes immediately after we exercise.

The ANU team is conducting research to better understand what impact these molecular messages have on retinal health, but also the central nervous system and eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Associate Professor Riccardo Natoli, Head of Clear Vision Research at ANU, says the molecules could potentially be hijacked, recoded and “bottled up” in a pill and taken like a vitamin.

“The beneficial messages being sent to the central nervous system during exercise are packaged up in what are known as lipid particles. We are essentially prescribing the molecular message of exercise to those who physically aren’t able to,” he said.

“We think that as you age, the ability to communicate between the muscles and the retina starts to be lost. Similar to taking supplements, maybe we can provide genetic or molecular supplementation that enables that natural biological process to continue as we age.

“Our goal is to figure out what these molecules are communicating to the body and how they’re communicating.”

New ANU research has examined existing literature into the effects of exercise on the central nervous system and eyes. Specifically, the researchers set out to discover what impact exercise has on the retina — the light-sensing part of the eye — and whether exercise can help maintain good eyesight as we age.

Dr Joshua Chu-Tan, also from the ANU Clear Vision Research Lab, says further research is needed to understand how these molecular signals, which are sent from the rest of the body when we exercise, actually reach our brain and eyes.

He says the team’s preliminary research into the benefits of exercise on the retina has unearthed some “promising” results.

“We know exercise is good for our eyesight, but to what extent is still unknown. Our aim is to understand the benefits of exercise at the molecular level and how it is beneficial for the central nervous system and the retina,” Dr Chu-Tan said.

“We found the benefits of exercise extend far beyond what has traditionally been known, however this has been largely understudied in the retina, despite the retina being an extension of the brain.

“One of the main goals of doing this review was to determine what’s going on inside the body after we exercise that gives us the benefits of exercise, and why physical activity is so good for our brain and eyes.”

The futuristic therapy could one day help patients suffering from neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

“It’s been suggested that prescribing exercise to patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s can help improve and slow down the disease progression,” Dr Chu-Tan said.

“We know that from looking at diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s if you exercise in a particular fashion you can potentially stimulate neuronal activity.

“That hasn’t really been looked at in the retina at the level we’re thinking of. We want to understand the molecular messages that underpin the benefits of exercise.”

The researchers say the supplement would be intended only for patients who have restricted movement that renders them unable to exercise at an intensity needed to reap the rewards. It is not intended for the general public.

“We can’t possibly package all the effects of exercise into a single pill, there are too many benefits that stretch throughout the entire body beyond what we could ‘prescribe’ and that’s not the goal,” Dr Chu-Tan said.

Dr Chu-Tan, Tuckwell Scholar Max Kirkby and Associate Professor Natoli’s systematic review of existing literature into the benefits of exercise on the central nervous system and eyes, including the retina, is published in Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.

We want to give thanks to the writer of this write-up for this amazing content

Unorthodox ‘train in a capsule’ could offer simple solution for at-risk patients

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638492363) } [1]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(62) "Jennifer Lopez’s most expensive bag ideal to wear with jeans" ["link"]=> string(93) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/jennifer-lopezs-most-expensive-bag-ideal-to-wear-with-jeans/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Sally Scully" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Fri, 03 Dec 2021 00:20:27 +0000" ["category"]=> string(49) "CelebritybagexpensiveidealjeansJenniferLopezswear" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4893" ["description"]=> string(633) "The singer, actress, dancer and businesswoman Jennifer Lopez She is a fashionista by nature. Even to go to the gym, she does it with a perfectly balanced, thought-out and produced outfit. Above all, never forget your handbag Birkin by Hermès, ideal to use with jeans. Classic trench coat, classic Birkin bag in black leather midi ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4936) "

The singer, actress, dancer and businesswoman Jennifer Lopez She is a fashionista by nature. Even to go to the gym, she does it with a perfectly balanced, thought-out and produced outfit. Above all, never forget your handbag Birkin by Hermès, ideal to use with jeans.

The Birkin like a jewel: Jennifer Lopez and her favorite bag

The Birkin model comes in three sizes and an important variety of colors to add them to any outfit. For its versatility and style, but also for its practicality, it soon became the favorite of Jennifer Lopez and other celebrities.

We would love to give thanks to the author of this short article for this incredible content

Jennifer Lopez’s most expensive bag ideal to wear with jeans

" } ["summary"]=> string(633) "The singer, actress, dancer and businesswoman Jennifer Lopez She is a fashionista by nature. Even to go to the gym, she does it with a perfectly balanced, thought-out and produced outfit. Above all, never forget your handbag Birkin by Hermès, ideal to use with jeans. Classic trench coat, classic Birkin bag in black leather midi ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4936) "

The singer, actress, dancer and businesswoman Jennifer Lopez She is a fashionista by nature. Even to go to the gym, she does it with a perfectly balanced, thought-out and produced outfit. Above all, never forget your handbag Birkin by Hermès, ideal to use with jeans.

The Birkin like a jewel: Jennifer Lopez and her favorite bag

The Birkin model comes in three sizes and an important variety of colors to add them to any outfit. For its versatility and style, but also for its practicality, it soon became the favorite of Jennifer Lopez and other celebrities.

We would love to give thanks to the author of this short article for this incredible content

Jennifer Lopez’s most expensive bag ideal to wear with jeans

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638490827) } [2]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(124) "The new turisanda.it website is online: a window on the world from which to admire many different destinations and countries" ["link"]=> string(157) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/the-new-turisanda-it-website-is-online-a-window-on-the-world-from-which-to-admire-many-different-destinations-and-countries/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Fri, 03 Dec 2021 00:17:34 +0000" ["category"]=> string(59) "LifestyleadmirecountriesdestinationsOnlineturisandaitwindow" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4887" ["description"]=> string(800) "A window on the world, from which to admire many different destinations and countries. It looks like this the new site turisanda.it, second step of the restyling process of the Alpitour group portals, inaugurated last spring with the release of the web address of the same name and destined to end at the beginning of ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4617) "

A window on the world, from which to admire many different destinations and countries. It looks like this the new site turisanda.it, second step of the restyling process of the Alpitour group portals, inaugurated last spring with the release of the web address of the same name and destined to end at the beginning of 2022 with the online launch of edenviaggi.it, followed by the launch of the My Alpitour app . All in the wake of the strategic development project inNova, launched at the end of 2019 by the company to accelerate corporate change by making the group increasingly efficient, fast and competitive.

Turisanda.it therefore intends to tell a travel concept intended for the most demanding customers and looking for an engaging storytelling., in-depth and immersive, capable of portraying the different destinations, the multiple moods with which to discover the world, the numerous services offered and the most exclusive brands. The goal is to become the first point of inspiration and information for future travelers.

The offer was then designed in a simple and rational way, enclosing within itself two distinctive travel experiences: the tailor made one, with the proposals of the Turisanda 1924 and Presstour by Turisanda brands, dedicated to flexible and custom-built travel needs, as well as that goal oriented, with all the signed opportunities Made by Turisanda, among which you can choose according to your own wishes.

In short, research can now also be oriented on the basis of inspiration, in line with the distinctive approach and values ​​of the brands. For each destination both traveling travel ideas (tours, cruises, travel templates) either hotels, villas or products with flight included. Through the new platform it will also be possible to book an online appointment directly with a travel designer or with a travel agent, to obtain even more in-depth and personalized advice.

Inside the site five macro-sections they also help the user to orient himself and to collect useful tips for his next trip: Destinations with the numerous destinations available and the respective descriptive pages; Explore for those looking for inspiration through other travelers’ stories, catalogs, specific interests or types of travel with the indication of the most advantageous proposals; Tailored for you with the story of the three brands (Turisanda 1924, Made and Presstour), with the related in-depth information sheets; In evidence, with particular focus on significant experiences and events relating to a specific period; Rules for traveling, which offers a useful summary of open destinations and everything you need to know to always move safely.

“Turisanda.it is the second site we have released as part of the renewal of the group’s digital platforms and is aimed at the most demanding travelers – says the chief revenue & digital officer, Paolo Meroni – The first piece of this project, alpitour.it, was released last spring, deeply improved and enriched in functionality, for a better use of users. The data confirms this change: we have recorded, in fact, a growth in the number of visits and an ever-increasing appreciation of the features. We will soon complete the circle with the release of the new My Alpitour app and the edenviaggi.it website. In the redesign of these platforms we have always had in mind an omnichannel approach that also involves travel agencies to approach the customer in a more complete and integrated way “.

We wish to thank the author of this write-up for this remarkable web content

The new turisanda.it website is online: a window on the world from which to admire many different destinations and countries

" } ["summary"]=> string(800) "A window on the world, from which to admire many different destinations and countries. It looks like this the new site turisanda.it, second step of the restyling process of the Alpitour group portals, inaugurated last spring with the release of the web address of the same name and destined to end at the beginning of ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4617) "

A window on the world, from which to admire many different destinations and countries. It looks like this the new site turisanda.it, second step of the restyling process of the Alpitour group portals, inaugurated last spring with the release of the web address of the same name and destined to end at the beginning of 2022 with the online launch of edenviaggi.it, followed by the launch of the My Alpitour app . All in the wake of the strategic development project inNova, launched at the end of 2019 by the company to accelerate corporate change by making the group increasingly efficient, fast and competitive.

Turisanda.it therefore intends to tell a travel concept intended for the most demanding customers and looking for an engaging storytelling., in-depth and immersive, capable of portraying the different destinations, the multiple moods with which to discover the world, the numerous services offered and the most exclusive brands. The goal is to become the first point of inspiration and information for future travelers.

The offer was then designed in a simple and rational way, enclosing within itself two distinctive travel experiences: the tailor made one, with the proposals of the Turisanda 1924 and Presstour by Turisanda brands, dedicated to flexible and custom-built travel needs, as well as that goal oriented, with all the signed opportunities Made by Turisanda, among which you can choose according to your own wishes.

In short, research can now also be oriented on the basis of inspiration, in line with the distinctive approach and values ​​of the brands. For each destination both traveling travel ideas (tours, cruises, travel templates) either hotels, villas or products with flight included. Through the new platform it will also be possible to book an online appointment directly with a travel designer or with a travel agent, to obtain even more in-depth and personalized advice.

Inside the site five macro-sections they also help the user to orient himself and to collect useful tips for his next trip: Destinations with the numerous destinations available and the respective descriptive pages; Explore for those looking for inspiration through other travelers’ stories, catalogs, specific interests or types of travel with the indication of the most advantageous proposals; Tailored for you with the story of the three brands (Turisanda 1924, Made and Presstour), with the related in-depth information sheets; In evidence, with particular focus on significant experiences and events relating to a specific period; Rules for traveling, which offers a useful summary of open destinations and everything you need to know to always move safely.

“Turisanda.it is the second site we have released as part of the renewal of the group’s digital platforms and is aimed at the most demanding travelers – says the chief revenue & digital officer, Paolo Meroni – The first piece of this project, alpitour.it, was released last spring, deeply improved and enriched in functionality, for a better use of users. The data confirms this change: we have recorded, in fact, a growth in the number of visits and an ever-increasing appreciation of the features. We will soon complete the circle with the release of the new My Alpitour app and the edenviaggi.it website. In the redesign of these platforms we have always had in mind an omnichannel approach that also involves travel agencies to approach the customer in a more complete and integrated way “.

We wish to thank the author of this write-up for this remarkable web content

The new turisanda.it website is online: a window on the world from which to admire many different destinations and countries

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638490654) } [3]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(47) "Meghan Markle, the victory against the UK media" ["link"]=> string(80) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/meghan-markle-the-victory-against-the-uk-media/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Fri, 03 Dec 2021 00:15:33 +0000" ["category"]=> string(30) "GossipMarklemediaMeghanvictory" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4881" ["description"]=> string(571) "Victory for Meghan Markle. The wife of the principe Harry she managed to get the better of the British media and assert her right to privacy before the courts, avoiding the hype of a possible third trial. The Court of Appeal confirmed the first instance ruling, according to which the Daily Mail is guilty of violating ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4020) "

Victory for Meghan Markle. The wife of the principe Harry she managed to get the better of the British media and assert her right to privacy before the courts, avoiding the hype of a possible third trial. The Court of Appeal confirmed the first instance ruling, according to which the Daily Mail is guilty of violating the right to privacy of the Duchess, publishing a personal letter from Meghan to her father.

The witness

And to say that the reputation of Meghan Markle she seemed totally compromised after the crucial testimony of Jason Knauf, the former Sussex communications officer. At the court the man had revealed how at the time the Sussexes had deliberately and regularly sought contact with journalists and even with the authors of their alleged “unauthorized” autobiography entitled Finding Freedom, written by Omid Scobie and Carolyn Durand in 2020. Kanuf’s unexpected testimony forced the Duchess to retract her statements at trial and acknowledge her involvement in the publication of the material.

Meghan’s retraction

The embarrassing turnaround of the actress, who apologized to the jury for her “forgetfulness”, had no impact on the outcome of the trial, which ultimately ended in a landslide victory for Meghan. “This is a victory not only for me, but for anyone who has ever been afraid to stand up for what is right,” Markle commented triumphantly. While this victory sets a precedent, what matters most is that we are now brave enough to reshape a tabloid industry that conditions people to be cruel and profits from the lies and pain they create. “

Some British legal experts take the opposite view, who underlined the worrying consequences of the sentence for freedom of expression: “This decision – commented the lawyer Matthew Dando – increases the concern that privacy laws allow public figures to selectively determine what can be reported about them and thus manipulate the media narrative. It is a dangerous precedent ».

Despite the opposition of public opinion and the media, with which it has never enjoyed great popularity, Meghan Markle she did not allow herself to be intimidated. “From day one (…) the accused has dealt with (the cause, ed) as a game without rules. The longer they dragged it on, the more they could distort facts and manipulate the public, making a simple case extraordinarily convoluted in order to generate more headlines and sell more newspapers, a model that rewards chaos above truth. In the nearly three years since it began, I have been patient in the face of calculated deception, intimidation and attacks. The courts have called the defendant to answer and my hope is that we all begin to do the same. Because as far as this may seem from your personal life, it is not. Tomorrow it could be you. These harmful practices don’t happen once: they are a daily failure that divides us and we all deserve better ».


Last updated: Thursday 2 December 2021, 22:59

© REPRODUCTION RESERVED

We would like to thank the author of this post for this remarkable content

Meghan Markle, the victory against the UK media

" } ["summary"]=> string(571) "Victory for Meghan Markle. The wife of the principe Harry she managed to get the better of the British media and assert her right to privacy before the courts, avoiding the hype of a possible third trial. The Court of Appeal confirmed the first instance ruling, according to which the Daily Mail is guilty of violating ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4020) "

Victory for Meghan Markle. The wife of the principe Harry she managed to get the better of the British media and assert her right to privacy before the courts, avoiding the hype of a possible third trial. The Court of Appeal confirmed the first instance ruling, according to which the Daily Mail is guilty of violating the right to privacy of the Duchess, publishing a personal letter from Meghan to her father.

The witness

And to say that the reputation of Meghan Markle she seemed totally compromised after the crucial testimony of Jason Knauf, the former Sussex communications officer. At the court the man had revealed how at the time the Sussexes had deliberately and regularly sought contact with journalists and even with the authors of their alleged “unauthorized” autobiography entitled Finding Freedom, written by Omid Scobie and Carolyn Durand in 2020. Kanuf’s unexpected testimony forced the Duchess to retract her statements at trial and acknowledge her involvement in the publication of the material.

Meghan’s retraction

The embarrassing turnaround of the actress, who apologized to the jury for her “forgetfulness”, had no impact on the outcome of the trial, which ultimately ended in a landslide victory for Meghan. “This is a victory not only for me, but for anyone who has ever been afraid to stand up for what is right,” Markle commented triumphantly. While this victory sets a precedent, what matters most is that we are now brave enough to reshape a tabloid industry that conditions people to be cruel and profits from the lies and pain they create. “

Some British legal experts take the opposite view, who underlined the worrying consequences of the sentence for freedom of expression: “This decision – commented the lawyer Matthew Dando – increases the concern that privacy laws allow public figures to selectively determine what can be reported about them and thus manipulate the media narrative. It is a dangerous precedent ».

Despite the opposition of public opinion and the media, with which it has never enjoyed great popularity, Meghan Markle she did not allow herself to be intimidated. “From day one (…) the accused has dealt with (the cause, ed) as a game without rules. The longer they dragged it on, the more they could distort facts and manipulate the public, making a simple case extraordinarily convoluted in order to generate more headlines and sell more newspapers, a model that rewards chaos above truth. In the nearly three years since it began, I have been patient in the face of calculated deception, intimidation and attacks. The courts have called the defendant to answer and my hope is that we all begin to do the same. Because as far as this may seem from your personal life, it is not. Tomorrow it could be you. These harmful practices don’t happen once: they are a daily failure that divides us and we all deserve better ».


Last updated: Thursday 2 December 2021, 22:59

© REPRODUCTION RESERVED

We would like to thank the author of this post for this remarkable content

Meghan Markle, the victory against the UK media

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638490533) } [4]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(71) "Green information applied sciences: Superconductivity meets spintronics" ["link"]=> string(104) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/green-information-applied-sciences-superconductivity-meets-spintronics/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 02 Dec 2021 23:29:18 +0000" ["category"]=> string(71) "Health And ScienceappliedgreenmeetssciencesspintronicsSuperconductivity" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4875" ["description"]=> string(679) "Journal Reference: D. Sanchez-Manzano, S. Mesoraca, F. A. Cuellar, M. Cabero, V. Rouco, G. Orfila, X. Palermo, A. Balan, L. Marcano, A. Sander, M. Rocci, J. Garcia-Barriocanal, F. Gallego, J. Tornos, A. Rivera, F. Mompean, M. Garcia-Hernandez, J. M. Gonzalez-Calbet, C. Leon, S. Valencia, C. Feuillet-Palma, N. Bergeal, A. I. Buzdin, J. Lesueur, Javier E. ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3949) "

Journal Reference:

  1. D. Sanchez-Manzano, S. Mesoraca, F. A. Cuellar, M. Cabero, V. Rouco, G. Orfila, X. Palermo, A. Balan, L. Marcano, A. Sander, M. Rocci, J. Garcia-Barriocanal, F. Gallego, J. Tornos, A. Rivera, F. Mompean, M. Garcia-Hernandez, J. M. Gonzalez-Calbet, C. Leon, S. Valencia, C. Feuillet-Palma, N. Bergeal, A. I. Buzdin, J. Lesueur, Javier E. Villegas, J. Santamaria. Extremely long-range, high-temperature Josephson coupling across a half-metallic ferromagnet. Nature Materials, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41563-021-01162-5

With the help of magneto-transport measurements, the researchers were able to demonstrate the presence of a supercurrent circulating through the manganite — this supercurrent is arising from the superconducting coupling between both superconducting regions, and thus a manifestation of a Josephson effect with a macroscopic long range.

Extremely rare: Triplett superconductivity

In addition, the scientists explored another interesting property with profound consequences for spintronic applications. In superconductors electrons pair together in so-called Cooper pairs. In the vast majority of superconducting materials these pairs are composed by electrons with opposite spin in order to minimise the magnetic exchange field which is detrimental for the stabilisation of superconductivity. The ferromagnet used by the international team has been a half-ferromagnet for which only one spin type electron is allowed to circulate. The fact that a supercurrent has been detected within this material, implies that the Cooper pairs of this supercurrent must be composed by electrons having the same spin. This so-called “triplet” superconductivity is extremely rare.

Mapping magnetic domains at BESSY II

“At the XMCD-PEEM station at BESSY II, we mapped and measured the magnetic domains within the manganite spacer. We observed wide regions homogeneously magnetised and connecting the superconducting regions. Triplet spin pairs can propagate freely in these,” explains Dr. Sergio Valencia Molina, HZB physicist, who supervised the measurements at BESSY II.

Superconducting currents flow without resistance which make them very appealing for low-power consumption applications. In the present case this current is made of electrons with equal spins. Such spin polarised currents could be used in novel superconducting spintronic applications for the transport (over long distances) and reading/writing of information while profiting from the stability imposed by the macroscopic quantum coherence of the Josephson effect.

The new device made of the superconducting and ferromagnetic components therefore opens up opportunities for superconducting spintronics and new perspectives for quantum computing.

We want to thank the writer of this post for this outstanding content

Green information applied sciences: Superconductivity meets spintronics

" } ["summary"]=> string(679) "Journal Reference: D. Sanchez-Manzano, S. Mesoraca, F. A. Cuellar, M. Cabero, V. Rouco, G. Orfila, X. Palermo, A. Balan, L. Marcano, A. Sander, M. Rocci, J. Garcia-Barriocanal, F. Gallego, J. Tornos, A. Rivera, F. Mompean, M. Garcia-Hernandez, J. M. Gonzalez-Calbet, C. Leon, S. Valencia, C. Feuillet-Palma, N. Bergeal, A. I. Buzdin, J. Lesueur, Javier E. ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(3949) "

Journal Reference:

  1. D. Sanchez-Manzano, S. Mesoraca, F. A. Cuellar, M. Cabero, V. Rouco, G. Orfila, X. Palermo, A. Balan, L. Marcano, A. Sander, M. Rocci, J. Garcia-Barriocanal, F. Gallego, J. Tornos, A. Rivera, F. Mompean, M. Garcia-Hernandez, J. M. Gonzalez-Calbet, C. Leon, S. Valencia, C. Feuillet-Palma, N. Bergeal, A. I. Buzdin, J. Lesueur, Javier E. Villegas, J. Santamaria. Extremely long-range, high-temperature Josephson coupling across a half-metallic ferromagnet. Nature Materials, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41563-021-01162-5

With the help of magneto-transport measurements, the researchers were able to demonstrate the presence of a supercurrent circulating through the manganite — this supercurrent is arising from the superconducting coupling between both superconducting regions, and thus a manifestation of a Josephson effect with a macroscopic long range.

Extremely rare: Triplett superconductivity

In addition, the scientists explored another interesting property with profound consequences for spintronic applications. In superconductors electrons pair together in so-called Cooper pairs. In the vast majority of superconducting materials these pairs are composed by electrons with opposite spin in order to minimise the magnetic exchange field which is detrimental for the stabilisation of superconductivity. The ferromagnet used by the international team has been a half-ferromagnet for which only one spin type electron is allowed to circulate. The fact that a supercurrent has been detected within this material, implies that the Cooper pairs of this supercurrent must be composed by electrons having the same spin. This so-called “triplet” superconductivity is extremely rare.

Mapping magnetic domains at BESSY II

“At the XMCD-PEEM station at BESSY II, we mapped and measured the magnetic domains within the manganite spacer. We observed wide regions homogeneously magnetised and connecting the superconducting regions. Triplet spin pairs can propagate freely in these,” explains Dr. Sergio Valencia Molina, HZB physicist, who supervised the measurements at BESSY II.

Superconducting currents flow without resistance which make them very appealing for low-power consumption applications. In the present case this current is made of electrons with equal spins. Such spin polarised currents could be used in novel superconducting spintronic applications for the transport (over long distances) and reading/writing of information while profiting from the stability imposed by the macroscopic quantum coherence of the Josephson effect.

The new device made of the superconducting and ferromagnetic components therefore opens up opportunities for superconducting spintronics and new perspectives for quantum computing.

We want to thank the writer of this post for this outstanding content

Green information applied sciences: Superconductivity meets spintronics

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638487758) } [5]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(79) "Climate modeling confirms historical records showing rise in hurricane activity" ["link"]=> string(113) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/climate-modeling-confirms-historical-records-showing-rise-in-hurricane-activity/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 02 Dec 2021 22:12:06 +0000" ["category"]=> string(79) "Health And ScienceactivityclimateconfirmsHistoricalhurricanemodelingrecordsrise" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4870" ["description"]=> string(774) "Journal Reference: Kerry Emanuel. Atlantic tropical cyclones downscaled from climate reanalyses show increasing activity over past 150 years. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27364-8 However, scientists have questioned whether this upward trend is a reflection of reality, or simply an artifact of lopsided record-keeping. If 19th-century storm trackers had access to 21st-century technology, would ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(7656) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Kerry Emanuel. Atlantic tropical cyclones downscaled from climate reanalyses show increasing activity over past 150 years. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27364-8

However, scientists have questioned whether this upward trend is a reflection of reality, or simply an artifact of lopsided record-keeping. If 19th-century storm trackers had access to 21st-century technology, would they have recorded more storms? This inherent uncertainty has kept scientists from relying on storm records, and the patterns within them, for clues to how climate influences storms.

A new MIT study published today in Nature Communications has used climate modeling, rather than storm records, to reconstruct the history of hurricanes and tropical cyclones around the world. The study finds that North Atlantic hurricanes have indeed increased in frequency over the last 150 years, similar to what historical records have shown.

In particular, major hurricanes, and hurricanes in general, are more frequent today than in the past. And those that make landfall appear have grown more powerful, carrying more destructive potential.

Curiously, while the North Atlantic has seen an overall increase in storm activity, the same trend was not observed in the rest of the world. The study found that the frequency of tropical cyclones globally has not changed significantly in the last 150 years.

“The evidence does point, as the original historical record did, to long-term increases in North Atlantic hurricane activity, but no significant changes in global hurricane activity,” says study author Kerry Emanuel, the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Atmospheric Science in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. “It certainly will change the interpretation of climate’s effects on hurricanes — that it’s really the regionality of the climate, and that something happened to the North Atlantic that’s different from the rest of the globe. It may have been caused by global warming, which is not necessarily globally uniform.”

Chance encounters

The most comprehensive record of tropical cyclones is compiled in a database known as the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). This historical record includes modern measurements from satellites and aircraft that date back to the 1940s. The database’s older records are based on reports from ships and islands that happened to be in a storm’s path. These earlier records date back to 1851, and overall the database shows an increase in North Atlantic storm activity over the last 150 years.

“Nobody disagrees that that’s what the historical record shows,” Emanuel says. “On the other hand, most sensible people don’t really trust the historical record that far back in time.”

Recently, scientists have used a statistical approach to identify storms that the historical record may have missed. To do so, they consulted all the digitally reconstructed shipping routes in the Atlantic over the last 150 years and mapped these routes over modern-day hurricane tracks. They then estimated the chance that a ship would encounter or entirely miss a hurricane’s presence. This analysis found a significant number of early storms were likely missed in the historical record. Accounting for these missed storms, they concluded that there was a chance that storm activity had not changed over the last 150 years.

But Emanuel points out that hurricane paths in the 19th century may have looked different from today’s tracks. What’s more, the scientists may have missed key shipping routes in their analysis, as older routes have not yet been digitized.

“All we know is, if there had been a change (in storm activity), it would not have been detectable, using digitized ship records,” Emanuel says “So I thought, there’s an opportunity to do better, by not using historical data at all.”

Seeding storms

Instead, he estimated past hurricane activity using dynamical downscaling — a technique that his group developed and has applied over the last 15 years to study climate’s effect on hurricanes. The technique starts with a coarse global climate simulation and embeds within this model a finer-resolution model that simulates features as small as hurricanes. The combined models are then fed with real-world measurements of atmospheric and ocean conditions. Emanuel then scatters the realistic simulation with hurricane “seeds” and runs the simulation forward in time to see which seeds bloom into full-blown storms.

For the new study, Emanuel embedded a hurricane model into a climate “reanalysis” — a type of climate model that combines observations from the past with climate simulations to generate accurate reconstructions of past weather patterns and climate conditions. He used a particular subset of climate reanalyses that only accounts for observations collected from the surface — for instance from ships, which have recorded weather conditions and sea surface temperatures consistently since the 1850s, as opposed to from satellites, which only began systematic monitoring in the 1970s.

“We chose to use this approach to avoid any artificial trends brought about by the introduction of progressively different observations,” Emanuel explains.

He ran an embedded hurricane model on three different climate reanalyses, simulating tropical cyclones around the world over the past 150 years. Across all three models, he observed “unequivocal increases” in North Atlantic hurricane activity.

“There’s been this quite large increase in activity in the Atlantic since the mid-19th century, which I didn’t expect to see,” Emanuel says.

Within this overall rise in storm activity, he also observed a “hurricane drought” — a period during the 1970s and 80s when the number of yearly hurricanes momentarily dropped. This pause in storm activity can also be seen in historical records, and Emanuel’s group proposes a cause: sulfate aerosols, which were byproducts of fossil fuel combustion, likely set off a cascade of climate effects that cooled the North Atlantic and temporarily suppressed hurricane formation.

“The general trend over the last 150 years was increasing storm activity, interrupted by this hurricane drought,” Emanuel notes. “And at this point, we’re more confident of why there was a hurricane drought than why there is an ongoing, long-term increase in activity that began in the 19th century. That is still a mystery, and it bears on the question of how global warming might affect future Atlantic hurricanes.”

This research was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this article for this amazing material

Climate modeling confirms historical records showing rise in hurricane activity

" } ["summary"]=> string(774) "Journal Reference: Kerry Emanuel. Atlantic tropical cyclones downscaled from climate reanalyses show increasing activity over past 150 years. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27364-8 However, scientists have questioned whether this upward trend is a reflection of reality, or simply an artifact of lopsided record-keeping. If 19th-century storm trackers had access to 21st-century technology, would ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(7656) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Kerry Emanuel. Atlantic tropical cyclones downscaled from climate reanalyses show increasing activity over past 150 years. Nature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-27364-8

However, scientists have questioned whether this upward trend is a reflection of reality, or simply an artifact of lopsided record-keeping. If 19th-century storm trackers had access to 21st-century technology, would they have recorded more storms? This inherent uncertainty has kept scientists from relying on storm records, and the patterns within them, for clues to how climate influences storms.

A new MIT study published today in Nature Communications has used climate modeling, rather than storm records, to reconstruct the history of hurricanes and tropical cyclones around the world. The study finds that North Atlantic hurricanes have indeed increased in frequency over the last 150 years, similar to what historical records have shown.

In particular, major hurricanes, and hurricanes in general, are more frequent today than in the past. And those that make landfall appear have grown more powerful, carrying more destructive potential.

Curiously, while the North Atlantic has seen an overall increase in storm activity, the same trend was not observed in the rest of the world. The study found that the frequency of tropical cyclones globally has not changed significantly in the last 150 years.

“The evidence does point, as the original historical record did, to long-term increases in North Atlantic hurricane activity, but no significant changes in global hurricane activity,” says study author Kerry Emanuel, the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Atmospheric Science in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. “It certainly will change the interpretation of climate’s effects on hurricanes — that it’s really the regionality of the climate, and that something happened to the North Atlantic that’s different from the rest of the globe. It may have been caused by global warming, which is not necessarily globally uniform.”

Chance encounters

The most comprehensive record of tropical cyclones is compiled in a database known as the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). This historical record includes modern measurements from satellites and aircraft that date back to the 1940s. The database’s older records are based on reports from ships and islands that happened to be in a storm’s path. These earlier records date back to 1851, and overall the database shows an increase in North Atlantic storm activity over the last 150 years.

“Nobody disagrees that that’s what the historical record shows,” Emanuel says. “On the other hand, most sensible people don’t really trust the historical record that far back in time.”

Recently, scientists have used a statistical approach to identify storms that the historical record may have missed. To do so, they consulted all the digitally reconstructed shipping routes in the Atlantic over the last 150 years and mapped these routes over modern-day hurricane tracks. They then estimated the chance that a ship would encounter or entirely miss a hurricane’s presence. This analysis found a significant number of early storms were likely missed in the historical record. Accounting for these missed storms, they concluded that there was a chance that storm activity had not changed over the last 150 years.

But Emanuel points out that hurricane paths in the 19th century may have looked different from today’s tracks. What’s more, the scientists may have missed key shipping routes in their analysis, as older routes have not yet been digitized.

“All we know is, if there had been a change (in storm activity), it would not have been detectable, using digitized ship records,” Emanuel says “So I thought, there’s an opportunity to do better, by not using historical data at all.”

Seeding storms

Instead, he estimated past hurricane activity using dynamical downscaling — a technique that his group developed and has applied over the last 15 years to study climate’s effect on hurricanes. The technique starts with a coarse global climate simulation and embeds within this model a finer-resolution model that simulates features as small as hurricanes. The combined models are then fed with real-world measurements of atmospheric and ocean conditions. Emanuel then scatters the realistic simulation with hurricane “seeds” and runs the simulation forward in time to see which seeds bloom into full-blown storms.

For the new study, Emanuel embedded a hurricane model into a climate “reanalysis” — a type of climate model that combines observations from the past with climate simulations to generate accurate reconstructions of past weather patterns and climate conditions. He used a particular subset of climate reanalyses that only accounts for observations collected from the surface — for instance from ships, which have recorded weather conditions and sea surface temperatures consistently since the 1850s, as opposed to from satellites, which only began systematic monitoring in the 1970s.

“We chose to use this approach to avoid any artificial trends brought about by the introduction of progressively different observations,” Emanuel explains.

He ran an embedded hurricane model on three different climate reanalyses, simulating tropical cyclones around the world over the past 150 years. Across all three models, he observed “unequivocal increases” in North Atlantic hurricane activity.

“There’s been this quite large increase in activity in the Atlantic since the mid-19th century, which I didn’t expect to see,” Emanuel says.

Within this overall rise in storm activity, he also observed a “hurricane drought” — a period during the 1970s and 80s when the number of yearly hurricanes momentarily dropped. This pause in storm activity can also be seen in historical records, and Emanuel’s group proposes a cause: sulfate aerosols, which were byproducts of fossil fuel combustion, likely set off a cascade of climate effects that cooled the North Atlantic and temporarily suppressed hurricane formation.

“The general trend over the last 150 years was increasing storm activity, interrupted by this hurricane drought,” Emanuel notes. “And at this point, we’re more confident of why there was a hurricane drought than why there is an ongoing, long-term increase in activity that began in the 19th century. That is still a mystery, and it bears on the question of how global warming might affect future Atlantic hurricanes.”

This research was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this article for this amazing material

Climate modeling confirms historical records showing rise in hurricane activity

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638483126) } [6]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(70) "Scientists can control brain circuits, habits, and emotion using light" ["link"]=> string(102) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/scientists-can-control-brain-circuits-habits-and-emotion-using-light/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 02 Dec 2021 20:54:14 +0000" ["category"]=> string(66) "Health And SciencebraincircuitscontrolemotionhabitslightScientists" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4865" ["description"]=> string(705) "Journal Reference: Joungha Won, Yuriy Pankratov, Minwoo Wendy Jang, Sunpil Kim, Yeonha Ju, Sangkyu Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Arie Kim, Soowon Park, C. Justin Lee* and Won Do Heo. Opto-vTrap, an optogenetic trap for reversible inhibition of vesicular release, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Neuron, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.11.003 However, it has been difficult to freely control ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4555) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Joungha Won, Yuriy Pankratov, Minwoo Wendy Jang, Sunpil Kim, Yeonha Ju, Sangkyu Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Arie Kim, Soowon Park, C. Justin Lee* and Won Do Heo. Opto-vTrap, an optogenetic trap for reversible inhibition of vesicular release, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Neuron, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.11.003

However, it has been difficult to freely control the activity of brain cells in a spatiotemporal manner using pre-existing techniques. One is an indirect approach that involves artificially controlling the membrane potential of cells, but it comes with problems of changing the acidity of the surrounding environment or causing unwanted misfiring of neurons. Moreover, it is not applicable for use in cells that do not respond to the membrane potential changes, such as glial cells.

To address this problem, South Korean researchers led by Director C. Justin LEE at the Center for Cognition and Sociality within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and professor HEO Won Do at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) developed Opto-vTrap, a light-inducible and reversible inhibition system that can temporarily trap vesicles from being released from brain cells. Opto-vTrap directly targets transmitters containing vesicles, and it can be used in various types of brain cells, even the ones that do not respond to membrane potential changes.

In order to directly control the exocytotic vesicles, the research team applied a technology they previously developed in 2014, called light-activated reversible inhibition by assembled trap (LARIAT). This platform can inactivate various types of proteins when illuminated under blue light by instantly trapping the target proteins, like a lariat. Opto-vTrap was developed by applying this LARIAT platform to vesicle exocytosis. When the Opto-vTrap expressing cells or tissues are shined under blue light, the vesicles form clusters and become trapped within the cells, inhibiting the release of transmitters.

Most importantly, the inhibition triggered using this new technique is temporary, which is very important for neuroscience research. Other previous techniques that target vesicle fusion proteins damage them permanently and disable the target neuron for up to 24 hours, which is not appropriate for many behavioral experiments with short time constraints. By comparison, vesicles that were inactivated using Opto-vTrap decluster in about 15 minutes, and the neurons regain their full functions within an hour.

Opto-vTrap directly controls the signal transmitters’ release, enabling the researchers to freely control brain activity. The research team verified the usability of Opto-vTrap in cultured cells and brain tissue slices. Furthermore, they tested the technique in live mice, which enabled them to temporarily remove fear memory from fear-conditioned animals.

In the future, Opto-vTrap will be used to uncover complex interactions between multiple parts of the brain. It will be a highly useful tool for studying how certain brain cell types affect brain function in different circumstances.

Professor Heo stated, “Since Opto-vTrap can be used in various cell types, it is expected to be helpful in various fields of brain science research,” He explained, “We plan to conduct a study to figure out the spatiotemporal brain functions in various brain cell types in a specific environment using Opto-vTrap technology.”

“The usability of Opto-vTrap can extend not only to neuroscience but also to our lives,” explains Director Lee. He added, “Opto-vTrap will contribute not only to elucidate brain circuit mapping but also epilepsy treatment, muscle spasm treatment, and skin tissue expansion technologies.”

We want to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this outstanding material

Scientists can control brain circuits, habits, and emotion using light

" } ["summary"]=> string(705) "Journal Reference: Joungha Won, Yuriy Pankratov, Minwoo Wendy Jang, Sunpil Kim, Yeonha Ju, Sangkyu Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Arie Kim, Soowon Park, C. Justin Lee* and Won Do Heo. Opto-vTrap, an optogenetic trap for reversible inhibition of vesicular release, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Neuron, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.11.003 However, it has been difficult to freely control ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4555) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Joungha Won, Yuriy Pankratov, Minwoo Wendy Jang, Sunpil Kim, Yeonha Ju, Sangkyu Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Arie Kim, Soowon Park, C. Justin Lee* and Won Do Heo. Opto-vTrap, an optogenetic trap for reversible inhibition of vesicular release, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Neuron, 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.11.003

However, it has been difficult to freely control the activity of brain cells in a spatiotemporal manner using pre-existing techniques. One is an indirect approach that involves artificially controlling the membrane potential of cells, but it comes with problems of changing the acidity of the surrounding environment or causing unwanted misfiring of neurons. Moreover, it is not applicable for use in cells that do not respond to the membrane potential changes, such as glial cells.

To address this problem, South Korean researchers led by Director C. Justin LEE at the Center for Cognition and Sociality within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and professor HEO Won Do at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) developed Opto-vTrap, a light-inducible and reversible inhibition system that can temporarily trap vesicles from being released from brain cells. Opto-vTrap directly targets transmitters containing vesicles, and it can be used in various types of brain cells, even the ones that do not respond to membrane potential changes.

In order to directly control the exocytotic vesicles, the research team applied a technology they previously developed in 2014, called light-activated reversible inhibition by assembled trap (LARIAT). This platform can inactivate various types of proteins when illuminated under blue light by instantly trapping the target proteins, like a lariat. Opto-vTrap was developed by applying this LARIAT platform to vesicle exocytosis. When the Opto-vTrap expressing cells or tissues are shined under blue light, the vesicles form clusters and become trapped within the cells, inhibiting the release of transmitters.

Most importantly, the inhibition triggered using this new technique is temporary, which is very important for neuroscience research. Other previous techniques that target vesicle fusion proteins damage them permanently and disable the target neuron for up to 24 hours, which is not appropriate for many behavioral experiments with short time constraints. By comparison, vesicles that were inactivated using Opto-vTrap decluster in about 15 minutes, and the neurons regain their full functions within an hour.

Opto-vTrap directly controls the signal transmitters’ release, enabling the researchers to freely control brain activity. The research team verified the usability of Opto-vTrap in cultured cells and brain tissue slices. Furthermore, they tested the technique in live mice, which enabled them to temporarily remove fear memory from fear-conditioned animals.

In the future, Opto-vTrap will be used to uncover complex interactions between multiple parts of the brain. It will be a highly useful tool for studying how certain brain cell types affect brain function in different circumstances.

Professor Heo stated, “Since Opto-vTrap can be used in various cell types, it is expected to be helpful in various fields of brain science research,” He explained, “We plan to conduct a study to figure out the spatiotemporal brain functions in various brain cell types in a specific environment using Opto-vTrap technology.”

“The usability of Opto-vTrap can extend not only to neuroscience but also to our lives,” explains Director Lee. He added, “Opto-vTrap will contribute not only to elucidate brain circuit mapping but also epilepsy treatment, muscle spasm treatment, and skin tissue expansion technologies.”

We want to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this outstanding material

Scientists can control brain circuits, habits, and emotion using light

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638478454) } [7]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(104) "Recommended Movies in December 2021, My Sassy Girl to the History of the Eiffel Tower: Okezone Celebrity" ["link"]=> string(136) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/recommended-movies-in-december-2021-my-sassy-girl-to-the-history-of-the-eiffel-tower-okezone-celebrity/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "David Lonit" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 02 Dec 2021 20:21:25 +0000" ["category"]=> string(73) "ShowsCelebrityDecemberEiffelGirlhistorymoviesOkezoneRecommendedSassyTower" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4859" ["description"]=> string(730) "JAKARTA – Film My Sassy Girl back in Indonesia. The film, dubbed as one of the best Korean films of all time, is back for fans in Indonesia. Apart from that, there are also other Korean box offices, such as Escape From Mogadishu, and Pipeline which aired on KlikFilm. Then from within the country there ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(8102) "

JAKARTA – Film My Sassy Girl back in Indonesia. The film, dubbed as one of the best Korean films of all time, is back for fans in Indonesia.

Apart from that, there are also other Korean box offices, such as Escape From Mogadishu, and Pipeline which aired on KlikFilm. Then from within the country there is the film Grandmother Ti, played by Beby Tsabina, Widyawati, and Irgi Achmad Fahrezi. There is also the film When to Move Home, played by Cut Mini, Clara Bernadeth, Mahalini Raharja, Indro Warkop, and Abun Sungkar. In addition, the film Waiting for Mother, played by Rey Mshadow, Donny Damara, Adinda Thomas, Putri Ayudia, and Steffi Zamora.

Also Read:

Gisel wears a white bra while exercising, fantastic body makes young mamas jealous

Jefri Nichol and Tiara Andini Star in Indonesian Version of My Sassy Girl

Meanwhile, other foreign films have films called Eiffel, Playing God, Eiffel, The Lost Daughter, Silent Night.

“We are happy to be able to provide the best for film fans in the country. Hopefully these films can be entertaining friends at the end of 2021,” said Director of KlikFilm, Frederica.

The following is a synopsis of the film that will be available in December 2021.

Playing God

This comedy-drama genre film focuses on the story of siblings who live through petty scams, attracting people to believe them, and giving money for various reasons.

The film stars Hannah Kasulka, Luke Benward, and Michael McKean. The film, which officially airs on August 6, 2021, is produced by Aaron Benward, Cody Bess, Scott Brignac, and others.

Eiffel

Gustave Eiffel, whose masterpiece is famous in France, has long been described as a madman, a brilliant structural engineer, and an iron architect.

A film that paints a somewhat different and softer picture of Eiffel as a hopeless romantic whose eponymous monument becomes a landmark to love as a triumph of engineering.

Eiffel, starring Romain Duris, is a period drama showing that the tower’s A-shape is a tribute built to Eiffel’s first love, Adrienne Bourgès, played by Emma Mackey from the Netflix series Sex Education.

The film, directed by Martin Bourboulon, claims to be “freely inspired” by historical facts and accurately shows how Eiffel was an unpopular figure in late 19th century Paris when his plans for a 10,100 ton iron tower, were meant to become a symbol of industrial Savoir-faire. France for the 1889 Universal Exhibition, inaugurated.

The engineer was reluctant to take up the project; he and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc – from the spire of the famous Notre Dame Cathedral – had just finished building the iron and steel framework for the Statue of Liberty in New York and Eiffel was more interested in working on the Paris Métro system.

Historians have never determined exactly what changed his mind. The film shows that he did so after meeting Bourgs, whom he had wanted to marry years earlier, rekindling their relationship despite the fact that the two were married and he was with a politician thought to be in control of the Eiffel tower plans.

The Lost Daughter

The Lost Daughter is one of the films that Maggie Gyllenhaal fans have been waiting for. The film also features the 2019 Academy Award for best artist, Olivia Colman.

Two figures who are flashy in the world of this film come with the work of The Lost Daughter. The film will officially premiere on December 31, 2021.

Pipeline

Two actors from the Korean drama Doom at Your Service, Seo In-guk and Lee Soo-hyuk are reunited in the film Pipeline.

In this Yoo Ha-directed film, the two handsome actors have an important role to carry out on a mission that will earn a lot of money. The mission is led by Geun-woo (Lee Soo-hyuk) who is a leader of an oil drilling company.

Despite having abundant wealth, Geun-woo still seems dissatisfied with his current wealth. Therefore, he plans to carry out the theft of oil from the underground pipeline that connects Honam Street and the cities of Seoul and Busan.

The estimated time set by Geun-woo to carry out the mission was one month to avoid the crowd’s suspicion.

Escape From Mogadhisu

After previously being the fastest film to reach more than 2 million viewers, in just 17 days in the midst of strict social distancing, Escape from Mogadishu has once again achieved a proud achievement. The film Escape from Mogadishu won 6 awards at the 30th Buil Film Award 2021, one of which won the Best Film award.

The Buil Film Award is a prestigious award event for South Korean cinema organized by a major Korean newspaper company, namely Busan Ilbo. This event is one of the South Korean film awards events which was first held in 1958.

Based on a true story, Escape from Mogadishu is a film about the life and death escapees of South and North Korean embassy workers who are stranded in the midst of the civil war in Somalia.

My Sassy Girl

Even though it was released 20 years ago, the film My Sassy Girl still gets an extraordinary response from fans of Korean dramas and films in various parts of the world. This film became one of the phenomenal Korean films and became a sign of the rise of South Korean filmmakers.

This romantic comedy genre film tells the story of Gyeon Woo (Cha Tae Hyun) a student who has had to suffer various misfortunes since deciding to help a drunk girl at an underground station.

My Sassy Girl became a very popular film and also in demand in its time. This film had entered the ranks of the South Korean box office. In addition, the film, starring Cha Tae Hyun and Jun Ji Hyun, is also considered to be able to compete with the Titanic film. Apart from being successful, this film also won several awards, including the Grand Bell for Best Actress in 2002 which was won by Artist Jun Ji-hyun, Hong Kong Film Award for Best Asian Film in 2003, Blue Dragon Film Awards for Best Newcomer Actor of the Year. 2001 which was won by Actor Cha Tae-hyun, and the Grand Bell Award for Best Screenplay– Adapted 2002.

We want to thank the author of this post for this amazing material

Recommended Movies in December 2021, My Sassy Girl to the History of the Eiffel Tower: Okezone Celebrity

" } ["summary"]=> string(730) "JAKARTA – Film My Sassy Girl back in Indonesia. The film, dubbed as one of the best Korean films of all time, is back for fans in Indonesia. Apart from that, there are also other Korean box offices, such as Escape From Mogadishu, and Pipeline which aired on KlikFilm. Then from within the country there ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(8102) "

JAKARTA – Film My Sassy Girl back in Indonesia. The film, dubbed as one of the best Korean films of all time, is back for fans in Indonesia.

Apart from that, there are also other Korean box offices, such as Escape From Mogadishu, and Pipeline which aired on KlikFilm. Then from within the country there is the film Grandmother Ti, played by Beby Tsabina, Widyawati, and Irgi Achmad Fahrezi. There is also the film When to Move Home, played by Cut Mini, Clara Bernadeth, Mahalini Raharja, Indro Warkop, and Abun Sungkar. In addition, the film Waiting for Mother, played by Rey Mshadow, Donny Damara, Adinda Thomas, Putri Ayudia, and Steffi Zamora.

Also Read:

Gisel wears a white bra while exercising, fantastic body makes young mamas jealous

Jefri Nichol and Tiara Andini Star in Indonesian Version of My Sassy Girl

Meanwhile, other foreign films have films called Eiffel, Playing God, Eiffel, The Lost Daughter, Silent Night.

“We are happy to be able to provide the best for film fans in the country. Hopefully these films can be entertaining friends at the end of 2021,” said Director of KlikFilm, Frederica.

The following is a synopsis of the film that will be available in December 2021.

Playing God

This comedy-drama genre film focuses on the story of siblings who live through petty scams, attracting people to believe them, and giving money for various reasons.

The film stars Hannah Kasulka, Luke Benward, and Michael McKean. The film, which officially airs on August 6, 2021, is produced by Aaron Benward, Cody Bess, Scott Brignac, and others.

Eiffel

Gustave Eiffel, whose masterpiece is famous in France, has long been described as a madman, a brilliant structural engineer, and an iron architect.

A film that paints a somewhat different and softer picture of Eiffel as a hopeless romantic whose eponymous monument becomes a landmark to love as a triumph of engineering.

Eiffel, starring Romain Duris, is a period drama showing that the tower’s A-shape is a tribute built to Eiffel’s first love, Adrienne Bourgès, played by Emma Mackey from the Netflix series Sex Education.

The film, directed by Martin Bourboulon, claims to be “freely inspired” by historical facts and accurately shows how Eiffel was an unpopular figure in late 19th century Paris when his plans for a 10,100 ton iron tower, were meant to become a symbol of industrial Savoir-faire. France for the 1889 Universal Exhibition, inaugurated.

The engineer was reluctant to take up the project; he and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc – from the spire of the famous Notre Dame Cathedral – had just finished building the iron and steel framework for the Statue of Liberty in New York and Eiffel was more interested in working on the Paris Métro system.

Historians have never determined exactly what changed his mind. The film shows that he did so after meeting Bourgs, whom he had wanted to marry years earlier, rekindling their relationship despite the fact that the two were married and he was with a politician thought to be in control of the Eiffel tower plans.

The Lost Daughter

The Lost Daughter is one of the films that Maggie Gyllenhaal fans have been waiting for. The film also features the 2019 Academy Award for best artist, Olivia Colman.

Two figures who are flashy in the world of this film come with the work of The Lost Daughter. The film will officially premiere on December 31, 2021.

Pipeline

Two actors from the Korean drama Doom at Your Service, Seo In-guk and Lee Soo-hyuk are reunited in the film Pipeline.

In this Yoo Ha-directed film, the two handsome actors have an important role to carry out on a mission that will earn a lot of money. The mission is led by Geun-woo (Lee Soo-hyuk) who is a leader of an oil drilling company.

Despite having abundant wealth, Geun-woo still seems dissatisfied with his current wealth. Therefore, he plans to carry out the theft of oil from the underground pipeline that connects Honam Street and the cities of Seoul and Busan.

The estimated time set by Geun-woo to carry out the mission was one month to avoid the crowd’s suspicion.

Escape From Mogadhisu

After previously being the fastest film to reach more than 2 million viewers, in just 17 days in the midst of strict social distancing, Escape from Mogadishu has once again achieved a proud achievement. The film Escape from Mogadishu won 6 awards at the 30th Buil Film Award 2021, one of which won the Best Film award.

The Buil Film Award is a prestigious award event for South Korean cinema organized by a major Korean newspaper company, namely Busan Ilbo. This event is one of the South Korean film awards events which was first held in 1958.

Based on a true story, Escape from Mogadishu is a film about the life and death escapees of South and North Korean embassy workers who are stranded in the midst of the civil war in Somalia.

My Sassy Girl

Even though it was released 20 years ago, the film My Sassy Girl still gets an extraordinary response from fans of Korean dramas and films in various parts of the world. This film became one of the phenomenal Korean films and became a sign of the rise of South Korean filmmakers.

This romantic comedy genre film tells the story of Gyeon Woo (Cha Tae Hyun) a student who has had to suffer various misfortunes since deciding to help a drunk girl at an underground station.

My Sassy Girl became a very popular film and also in demand in its time. This film had entered the ranks of the South Korean box office. In addition, the film, starring Cha Tae Hyun and Jun Ji Hyun, is also considered to be able to compete with the Titanic film. Apart from being successful, this film also won several awards, including the Grand Bell for Best Actress in 2002 which was won by Artist Jun Ji-hyun, Hong Kong Film Award for Best Asian Film in 2003, Blue Dragon Film Awards for Best Newcomer Actor of the Year. 2001 which was won by Actor Cha Tae-hyun, and the Grand Bell Award for Best Screenplay– Adapted 2002.

We want to thank the author of this post for this amazing material

Recommended Movies in December 2021, My Sassy Girl to the History of the Eiffel Tower: Okezone Celebrity

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638476485) } [8]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(51) "Getting the most therapeutic potential out of cells" ["link"]=> string(85) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/getting-the-most-therapeutic-potential-out-of-cells/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 02 Dec 2021 19:37:01 +0000" ["category"]=> string(43) "Health And SciencecellsPotentialtherapeutic" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4854" ["description"]=> string(664) "Journal Reference: Stephen Lenzini, Koushik Debnath, Jagdish C. Joshi, Sing Wan Wong, Kriti Srivastava, Xue Geng, Ik Sung Cho, Angela Song, Raymond Bargi, James C. Lee, Gary C.H. Mo, Dolly Mehta, Jae-Won Shin. Cell–Matrix Interactions Regulate Functional Extracellular Vesicle Secretion from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. ACS Nano, 2021; 15 (11): 17439 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c03231 The finding offers ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(3863) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Stephen Lenzini, Koushik Debnath, Jagdish C. Joshi, Sing Wan Wong, Kriti Srivastava, Xue Geng, Ik Sung Cho, Angela Song, Raymond Bargi, James C. Lee, Gary C.H. Mo, Dolly Mehta, Jae-Won Shin. Cell–Matrix Interactions Regulate Functional Extracellular Vesicle Secretion from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. ACS Nano, 2021; 15 (11): 17439 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c03231

The finding offers new avenues for research around cellular therapies, which use transplanted cells — like stem cells or immune cells, either from the patient or a donor — to help the body heal or work better, and patients and their doctors want the most bang for their buck in terms of potency. For injuries in the lungs, like those caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome, treatments that use extracellular vesicles have shown promise, but remain expensive and limited by the number of donated cells needed to reach a therapeutic level.

The researchers, led by Jae-Won Shin, have been studying how extracellular vesicles work. Through experiments, they found that altering the material in which the donor cells are processed can have a strong impact on the potency of extracellular vesicles.

“We were very surprised that a simple environmental change could have such a significant impact,” said Shin, UIC assistant professor in the department of pharmacology and regenerative medicine and the department of biomedical engineering. “This tells us that cells interact differently in different tissues, and this impacts how they secrete extracellular vesicles and influence other cells around them.”

The key, they found, was using a soft hydrogel material that more closely resembles the natural environment of tissues to prepare the particles. When they compared the particles cultured from cells in traditional materials with those cultured in a softer material, they saw that the extracellular vesicles were secreted in a greater quantity in the softer substrate.

“In the stiff substrates, cytoskeletal structures in cells are dense and less flexible. This makes it difficult for extracellular vesicles to exit the cells. But in the soft substrate, these structures are less dense, more bendable and more spread out, making the environment more conducive to the secretion of the particles by cells,” said first author Stephen Lenzini, a UIC alumnus who worked on the study in Shin’s lab as a graduate student.

Shin said, “That’s why fewer donor cells are needed to produce the same number of particles.”

They also compared the therapeutic potential of the particles produced in the different materials. They observed that the same dose of extracellular vesicles produced from the softer substrate was much more effective at facilitating repair processes than the extracellular vesicles produced from a traditional harder substrate.

“Understanding this opens the door for many new avenues of investigation for lab and clinical trials of treatments that use donor extracellular vesicles to repair damaged tissues, like which occurs in the lungs of some COVID-19 patients who face complications like ARDS,” he said.

We would love to thank the writer of this write-up for this awesome content

Getting the most therapeutic potential out of cells

" } ["summary"]=> string(664) "Journal Reference: Stephen Lenzini, Koushik Debnath, Jagdish C. Joshi, Sing Wan Wong, Kriti Srivastava, Xue Geng, Ik Sung Cho, Angela Song, Raymond Bargi, James C. Lee, Gary C.H. Mo, Dolly Mehta, Jae-Won Shin. Cell–Matrix Interactions Regulate Functional Extracellular Vesicle Secretion from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. ACS Nano, 2021; 15 (11): 17439 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c03231 The finding offers ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(3863) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Stephen Lenzini, Koushik Debnath, Jagdish C. Joshi, Sing Wan Wong, Kriti Srivastava, Xue Geng, Ik Sung Cho, Angela Song, Raymond Bargi, James C. Lee, Gary C.H. Mo, Dolly Mehta, Jae-Won Shin. Cell–Matrix Interactions Regulate Functional Extracellular Vesicle Secretion from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. ACS Nano, 2021; 15 (11): 17439 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c03231

The finding offers new avenues for research around cellular therapies, which use transplanted cells — like stem cells or immune cells, either from the patient or a donor — to help the body heal or work better, and patients and their doctors want the most bang for their buck in terms of potency. For injuries in the lungs, like those caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome, treatments that use extracellular vesicles have shown promise, but remain expensive and limited by the number of donated cells needed to reach a therapeutic level.

The researchers, led by Jae-Won Shin, have been studying how extracellular vesicles work. Through experiments, they found that altering the material in which the donor cells are processed can have a strong impact on the potency of extracellular vesicles.

“We were very surprised that a simple environmental change could have such a significant impact,” said Shin, UIC assistant professor in the department of pharmacology and regenerative medicine and the department of biomedical engineering. “This tells us that cells interact differently in different tissues, and this impacts how they secrete extracellular vesicles and influence other cells around them.”

The key, they found, was using a soft hydrogel material that more closely resembles the natural environment of tissues to prepare the particles. When they compared the particles cultured from cells in traditional materials with those cultured in a softer material, they saw that the extracellular vesicles were secreted in a greater quantity in the softer substrate.

“In the stiff substrates, cytoskeletal structures in cells are dense and less flexible. This makes it difficult for extracellular vesicles to exit the cells. But in the soft substrate, these structures are less dense, more bendable and more spread out, making the environment more conducive to the secretion of the particles by cells,” said first author Stephen Lenzini, a UIC alumnus who worked on the study in Shin’s lab as a graduate student.

Shin said, “That’s why fewer donor cells are needed to produce the same number of particles.”

They also compared the therapeutic potential of the particles produced in the different materials. They observed that the same dose of extracellular vesicles produced from the softer substrate was much more effective at facilitating repair processes than the extracellular vesicles produced from a traditional harder substrate.

“Understanding this opens the door for many new avenues of investigation for lab and clinical trials of treatments that use donor extracellular vesicles to repair damaged tissues, like which occurs in the lungs of some COVID-19 patients who face complications like ARDS,” he said.

We would love to thank the writer of this write-up for this awesome content

Getting the most therapeutic potential out of cells

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1638473821) } [9]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(26) "Taking new aim at COVID-19" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/taking-new-aim-at-covid-19/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Thu, 02 Dec 2021 18:20:02 +0000" ["category"]=> string(28) "Health And ScienceaimCOVID19" ["guid"]=> string(40) "https://wikileaksisdemocracy.org/?p=4849" ["description"]=> string(595) "Journal Reference: Martina Zafferani, Christina Haddad, Le Luo, Jesse Davila-Calderon, Liang-Yuan Chiu, Christian Shema Mugisha, Adeline G. Monaghan, Andrew A. Kennedy, Joseph D. Yesselman, Robert J. Gifford, Andrew W. Tai, Sebla B. Kutluay, Mei-Ling Li, Gary Brewer, Blanton S. Tolbert, Amanda E. Hargrove. Amilorides inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro by targeting RNA structures. Science Advances, ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(7635) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Martina Zafferani, Christina Haddad, Le Luo, Jesse Davila-Calderon, Liang-Yuan Chiu, Christian Shema Mugisha, Adeline G. Monaghan, Andrew A. Kennedy, Joseph D. Yesselman, Robert J. Gifford, Andrew W. Tai, Sebla B. Kutluay, Mei-Ling Li, Gary Brewer, Blanton S. Tolbert, Amanda E. Hargrove. Amilorides inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro by targeting RNA structures. Science Advances, 2021; 7 (48) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abl6096

In a study to appear Nov. 26 in the journal Science Advances, Hargrove and colleagues have identified chemical compounds that can latch onto these 3D structures and block the virus’s ability to replicate.

“These are the first molecules with antiviral activity that target the virus’s RNA specifically, so it’s a totally new mechanism in that sense,” Hargrove said.

Even more than 18 months into the pandemic, that’s good news. We have vaccines to prevent COVID-19, but effective, easy-to-administer drugs to help people survive and recover once they’ve been infected remain limited.

The virus is receding in some parts of the world, but cases are still surging in others where vaccines are in short supply. And even in regions with easy access to vaccines, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy means many of the world’s eight billion people remain vulnerable to infection.

To infect your cells, the coronavirus must break in, deliver its genetic instructions in the form of RNA, and hijack the body’s molecular machinery to build new copies of itself. The infected cell becomes a virus factory, reading the 30,000 nucleotide “letters” of the virus’s genetic code and churning out the proteins the virus needs to replicate and spread.

Most antivirals — including remdesivir, molnupiravir and Paxlovid, the only antiviral drugs for COVID-19 that have been FDA-approved or are in line for approval — work by binding to these proteins. But Hargrove and colleagues are taking a different approach. They’ve identified the first molecules that take aim at the viral genome itself — and not just the linear sequence of A’s, C’s, G’s and U’s, but the complex three-dimensional structures the RNA strand folds into.

When the first terrifying hints of the pandemic started to make headlines, the team including Hargrove, Blanton Tolbert from Case Western Reserve University and Gary Brewer and Mei-Ling Li from Rutgers were already investigating potential drug candidates to fight another RNA virus — Enterovirus 71, a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in children.

They had identified a class of small molecules called amilorides that can bind to hairpin-like folds in the virus’s genetic material and throw a wrench in the virus’s replication.

To see if the same compounds could work against coronaviruses too, first they tested 23 amiloride-based molecules against another, far less deadly coronavirus responsible for many common colds. They identified three compounds that, when added to infected monkey cells, reduced the amount of virus within 24 hours of infection without causing collateral damage to their host cells. They also showed greater effects at higher doses. The researchers got similar results when they tested the molecules on cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Further work showed that the molecules stopped the virus from building up by binding to a site in the first 800 letters of the viral genome. Most of this stretch of RNA doesn’t code for proteins itself but drives their production.

The region folds in on itself to form multiple bulges and hairpin-like structures. Using computer modeling and a technique called nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the researchers were able to analyze these 3D RNA structures and pinpoint where the chemical compounds were binding.

The researchers are still trying to figure out exactly how these compounds stop the virus from multiplying, once they’re bound to its genome.

When it comes to using RNA as a drug target, Hargrove says the field is still in its early stages. Part of the reason is that RNA structures are unstable. They bounce around a lot more than their protein counterparts, which makes it hard to design molecules that can interact with them in specific ways.

“The binding pocket that you’re looking for may not even be present most of the time,” Hargrove said.

What’s more, 85% of the RNA in an infected cell doesn’t belong to the virus, but to the ribosomes — cellular particles made of RNA and protein — of its human host. “There’s a sea of competition,” Hargrove said.

But Hargrove is hopeful. The first small-molecule drug that works by binding to non-ribosomal RNA directly, rather than proteins, was just approved by the FDA last August, to treat people with a devastating disease called spinal muscular atrophy. “So while there are lots of challenges, it’s not impossible,” Hargrove said.

The researchers have a patent pending on their method. They want to modify the compounds to make them more potent, and then test them in mice “to see if this could be a viable drug candidate,” Hargrove said.

This isn’t the first time that coronaviruses have caused an outbreak, and it likely won’t be the last, the researchers say. In the last two decades, the same family of viruses was responsible for SARS, which emerged in China and spread to more than two dozen countries in 2002, and MERS, first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

The researchers determined that the loops and bulges of RNA they identified have remained essentially unchanged by evolution across related coronaviruses in bats, rats and humans, including the ones that caused the SARS and MERS outbreaks. That means their method might be able to fight more than just SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Clearly, more antivirals would be valuable weapons to have, so when the next pandemic hits we’ll be better prepared. Having more drugs on hand would have another benefit: fighting resistance. Viruses mutate over time. Being able to combine drugs with different mechanisms of action would make it less likely that the virus could develop resistance to all of them simultaneously and become impossible to treat, Hargrove said.

“This is a new way to think about antivirals for RNA viruses,” Hargrove said.

The researchers collaborated across seven institutions for this study, including Rutgers University, Case Western Reserve University, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Glasgow and the University of Michigan.

This research was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (R35GM124785, GM126833), Tobacco Settlement Fund (21-5734-0010), Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom (MC_UU_12014/12), and Duke University.

We wish to thank the author of this post for this awesome material

Taking new aim at COVID-19

" } ["summary"]=> string(595) "Journal Reference: Martina Zafferani, Christina Haddad, Le Luo, Jesse Davila-Calderon, Liang-Yuan Chiu, Christian Shema Mugisha, Adeline G. Monaghan, Andrew A. Kennedy, Joseph D. Yesselman, Robert J. Gifford, Andrew W. Tai, Sebla B. Kutluay, Mei-Ling Li, Gary Brewer, Blanton S. Tolbert, Amanda E. Hargrove. Amilorides inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro by targeting RNA structures. Science Advances, ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(7635) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Martina Zafferani, Christina Haddad, Le Luo, Jesse Davila-Calderon, Liang-Yuan Chiu, Christian Shema Mugisha, Adeline G. Monaghan, Andrew A. Kennedy, Joseph D. Yesselman, Robert J. Gifford, Andrew W. Tai, Sebla B. Kutluay, Mei-Ling Li, Gary Brewer, Blanton S. Tolbert, Amanda E. Hargrove. Amilorides inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro by targeting RNA structures. Science Advances, 2021; 7 (48) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abl6096

In a study to appear Nov. 26 in the journal Science Advances, Hargrove and colleagues have identified chemical compounds that can latch onto these 3D structures and block the virus’s ability to replicate.

“These are the first molecules with antiviral activity that target the virus’s RNA specifically, so it’s a totally new mechanism in that sense,” Hargrove said.

Even more than 18 months into the pandemic, that’s good news. We have vaccines to prevent COVID-19, but effective, easy-to-administer drugs to help people survive and recover once they’ve been infected remain limited.

The virus is receding in some parts of the world, but cases are still surging in others where vaccines are in short supply. And even in regions with easy access to vaccines, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy means many of the world’s eight billion people remain vulnerable to infection.

To infect your cells, the coronavirus must break in, deliver its genetic instructions in the form of RNA, and hijack the body’s molecular machinery to build new copies of itself. The infected cell becomes a virus factory, reading the 30,000 nucleotide “letters” of the virus’s genetic code and churning out the proteins the virus needs to replicate and spread.

Most antivirals — including remdesivir, molnupiravir and Paxlovid, the only antiviral drugs for COVID-19 that have been FDA-approved or are in line for approval — work by binding to these proteins. But Hargrove and colleagues are taking a different approach. They’ve identified the first molecules that take aim at the viral genome itself — and not just the linear sequence of A’s, C’s, G’s and U’s, but the complex three-dimensional structures the RNA strand folds into.

When the first terrifying hints of the pandemic started to make headlines, the team including Hargrove, Blanton Tolbert from Case Western Reserve University and Gary Brewer and Mei-Ling Li from Rutgers were already investigating potential drug candidates to fight another RNA virus — Enterovirus 71, a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in children.

They had identified a class of small molecules called amilorides that can bind to hairpin-like folds in the virus’s genetic material and throw a wrench in the virus’s replication.

To see if the same compounds could work against coronaviruses too, first they tested 23 amiloride-based molecules against another, far less deadly coronavirus responsible for many common colds. They identified three compounds that, when added to infected monkey cells, reduced the amount of virus within 24 hours of infection without causing collateral damage to their host cells. They also showed greater effects at higher doses. The researchers got similar results when they tested the molecules on cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Further work showed that the molecules stopped the virus from building up by binding to a site in the first 800 letters of the viral genome. Most of this stretch of RNA doesn’t code for proteins itself but drives their production.

The region folds in on itself to form multiple bulges and hairpin-like structures. Using computer modeling and a technique called nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the researchers were able to analyze these 3D RNA structures and pinpoint where the chemical compounds were binding.

The researchers are still trying to figure out exactly how these compounds stop the virus from multiplying, once they’re bound to its genome.

When it comes to using RNA as a drug target, Hargrove says the field is still in its early stages. Part of the reason is that RNA structures are unstable. They bounce around a lot more than their protein counterparts, which makes it hard to design molecules that can interact with them in specific ways.

“The binding pocket that you’re looking for may not even be present most of the time,” Hargrove said.

What’s more, 85% of the RNA in an infected cell doesn’t belong to the virus, but to the ribosomes — cellular particles made of RNA and protein — of its human host. “There’s a sea of competition,” Hargrove said.

But Hargrove is hopeful. The first small-molecule drug that works by binding to non-ribosomal RNA directly, rather than proteins, was just approved by the FDA last August, to treat people with a devastating disease called spinal muscular atrophy. “So while there are lots of challenges, it’s not impossible,” Hargrove said.

The researchers have a patent pending on their method. They want to modify the compounds to make them more potent, and then test them in mice “to see if this could be a viable drug candidate,” Hargrove said.

This isn’t the first time that coronaviruses have caused an outbreak, and it likely won’t be the last, the researchers say. In the last two decades, the same family of viruses was responsible for SARS, which emerged in China and spread to more than two dozen countries in 2002, and MERS, first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

The researchers determined that the loops and bulges of RNA they identified have remained essentially unchanged by evolution across related coronaviruses in bats, rats and humans, including the ones that caused the SARS and MERS outbreaks. That means their method might be able to fight more than just SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Clearly, more antivirals would be valuable weapons to have, so when the next pandemic hits we’ll be better prepared. Having more drugs on hand would have another benefit: fighting resistance. Viruses mutate over time. Being able to combine drugs with different mechanisms of action would make it less likely that the virus could develop resistance to all of them simultaneously and become impossible to treat, Hargrove said.

“This is a new way to think about antivirals for RNA viruses,” Hargrove said.

The researchers collaborated across seven institutions for this study, including Rutgers University, Case Western Reserve University, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Glasgow and the University of Michigan.

This research was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (R35GM124785, GM126833), Tobacco Settlement Fund (21-5734-0010), Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom (MC_UU_12014/12), and Duke University.

We wish to thank the author of this post for this awesome material

Taking new aim at COVID-19

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